Eurofighter Typhoon

TypeMultirole fighter
Country of originMultinational: Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom
ManufacturerEurofighter GmbH
First flight27 March 1994
Introduced4 August 2003
Produced30 January 1998
Numbers built>260 as of January 2011
Unit costs€90 million
Max speedMaximum speed: **At altitude: Mach 2 (2,495 km/h/1,550 mph
At sea level: Mach 1.2 (1,470 km/h/910 mph)
Supercruise: Mach 1.1–1.5
Max rangeRange: 2,900 km (1,800 mi)

Combat radius:
Ground attack, lo-lo-lo: 601 km (325 nmi)
Ground attack, hi-lo-hi: 1,389 km (750 nmi)
Air defence with 3-hr combat air patrol: 185 km (100 nmi)
Air defence with 10-min. loiter: 1,389 km (750 nmi)
Ferry range: 3,790 km (2,350 mi)
Service ceiling: 19,810 m (64,990 ft)
DimensionsLength: 15.96 m (52.4 ft)
Wingspan: 10.95 m (35.9 ft)
Height: 5.28 m (17.3 ft)
Wing area: 51.2 m2[219] (551 sq ft)
WeightEmpty weight: 11,150 kg (24,600 lb)
Loaded weight: 16,000 kg[219][220] (35,000 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 23,500 kg (52,000 lb)
PowerplantEmpty weight: 11,150 kg (24,600 lb)
Loaded weight: 16,000 kg[219][220] (35,000 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 23,500 kg (52,000 lb)
ArmamentEmpty weight: 11,150 kg (24,600 lb)
Loaded weight: 16,000 kg[219][220] (35,000 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 23,500 kg (52,000 lb)
OperatorsAustria, Germany, Italy, Spain ,Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a highly agile, twin-engine, multirole fighter aircraft which features canard-delta wing. The Typhoon can perform supercruise ability and features voice command control and able to take air-to-ground attack mission.

The Typhoon is designed, developed and manufactured by a consortium of three companies: Alenia Aeronautica of Italy, BAE Systems of the UK and European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V. (EADS) of Germany and Spain. The work under a holding company which was established in 1986 namely Eurofighter GmbH. NATO is the primary operator of the Typhoon thus NATO manages the development of this multirole fighter. In January 2003, Norway brought in an agreement for industrial engagement in the project, but has not perpetrated to order of the fighter.

The Typhoon is expected will stay in service until 2040. As of now, the Typhoon has been serving with the Austrian Air Force, the Italian Air Force, the German Luftwaffe, the British Royal Air Force, the Spanish Air Force, and the Royal Saudi Air Force.

The Development of Eurofighter Typhoon

Around 1971, the UK had recognized a necessity for an innovative fighter. The UK aircraft industry wanted a fighter which comparable to the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. In 1979, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) and British Aerospace (BAe) offered a formal proposal to their respective governments for ECF, the European Collaborative Fighter or European Combat Fighter. In October 1979 Dassault teamed up the ECF team for a tri-national study, which turned out to be acknowledged as the European Combat Aircraft.

In 1983 the Germany, France, UK, Italy and Spain brought out the Future European Fighter Aircraft (FEFA) programme. Short take off and landing (STOL) and beyond visual range (BVR) were some of the required abilities. In 1984 France stated its qualification for a carrier-capable version and called for a leading role. The West Germany, UK and Italy rejected and quitted the project and they started a new EFA programme. In August 1985, West Germany, UK and Italy decided to proceed with the Eurofighter; and affirmed that France, as well as Spain, could not carry on as a member of the project. Regardless of strain from France, Spain rejoined the Eurofighter project in early September 1985. France formally exited from the project to carry on with its own ACX project, which was to become the Dassault Rafale.

In April 1986 the BAe Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP) was rolled out at BAe Warton, by this time also partially funded by MBB, BAe and Aeritalia. The EAP maiden flight took place on 6 August 1986. The Eurofighter carries a solid similarity to the EAP.

On 24 August 2010, the project experienced its first toll once a two seat Typhoon crashed, for unidentified reasons, killing a Saudi Air Force Lieutenant Colonel, the front seat occupant, right after taking off from Moron Air Base in Spain. Experts think that a bird strike had demolished important sensors. The Spanish instructor ejected and suffered simply minor wounds. Right after this occurrence the German Luftwaffe grounded its 55 planes on 16 September 2010, in the middle of worries that after ejecting properly the pilot had fallen to his death. In reaction to the investigation of the crash, on 17 September 2010, the RAF for the time being grounded all Typhoon training flights. Quick Reaction Alert duties were not affected. On 21 September, the RAF publicized that the harness system had been adequately revised to allow routine flying from RAF Coningsby.

On 12 April 2011 a combined set of RAF Typhoon and Tornado GR4 deployed precision-guided bombs on ground vehicles managed by Gaddafi forces that were left in an empty tank park.

The Design of Typhoon

The Typhoon is a remarkably agile jet fighter at both supersonic and low speeds, obtained despite the fact that having a deliberately relaxed stability design. It features a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire control system offering artificial stability; manual operation alone could not make up for the inherent instability.

The Typhoon includes lightweight construction (82% composites consisting of 70% carbon fibre composites and 12% glass reinforced composites) with an expected lifetime of 6000 flying hours.

Navigation is via both GPS and an inertial navigation system. The Typhoon can benefit from Instrument Landing System (ILS) designed for landing in poor weather. The aircraft uses an advanced and exceptionally integrated Defensive Aids Sub-System named Praetorian (formerly called EuroDASS). For protection, the jet fighter uses Chaff, Jaff and Flares, Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and a Towed Radar Decoy (TRD).

The Eurofighter Typhoon uses a glass cockpit with no any regular instruments. It includes: three full colour multi-function head-down displays (MHDDs) (the formats on which are manipulated by means of softkeys, XY cursor, and voice (DVI) command which gives the pilot with an extra natural mode of command and control over roughly 26 non-critical cockpit functions, to minimize pilot workload, increase aircraft safety, and broaden mission capabilities), a wide angle head-up display (HUD) with forward-looking infrared (FLIR), voice and hands-on throttle and stick (Voice+HOTAS), Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS), Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS), a manual data-entry facility (MDEF) positioned on the left glareshield and a completely integrated aircraft warning system with a specific warnings panel (DWP).

The cockpit was engineered with a user-centric focus, the layout and features were built by way of feedback and assessments from military pilots and a specialist testing facility. The pilot handles the aircraft through a centre stick and left hand throttles, fashioned on a Hand on Throttle & Stick (HOTAS) principle to reduce pilot workloads. Emergency escape is offered by a Martin-Baker Mk. 16A ejection seat, with the canopy being powered by two rocket motors.

While not designated a stealth fighter, precautions were applied to cut down the Typhoon’s radar cross section (RCS), particularly from the frontal aspect. The Eurofighter runs automatic Emission Controls (EMCON) to lessen the Electro-Magnetic emissions of the current mechanically scanned Radar.

The Variants of the Typhoon

The Eurofighter is produced in single-seat and twin-seat variants. The twin-seat variant is not used operationally, but only for training.

  • Block 1 – The variant has initial operational capability and basic air defence capability.
  • Block 2 – The variant has initial air-to-air capabilities.
  • Block 2B – The variant features full air-to-air capabilities.
  • Block 5 – The variant possesses full operational capability (FOC) by combining existing air-to-air role with air-to-ground capabilities.
  • Block 8 – The variant implements new mission computers for integration of future weapon systems such as Meteor, Storm Shadow and Taurus.
  • Block 10 – The variant deploys some software: EOC 1 (advanced multi-role step 1) AIM-120C-5 AMRAAM, IRIS-T digital. A2G: GBU-24, GPS-controlled weapons, ALARM, Paveway III & IV, Rafael Litening III.
  • Block 15 – The variant deploys some software:  EOC 2 (advanced multi-role step 2) A2A Meteor A2G: TAURUS, Storm Shadow, Brimstone.
  • STOBAR (Short Take Off But Arrested Recovery) – A navalized Typhoon in response to the Indian tender.

Eurofighter Typhoon videos

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Eurofighter Typhoon 2011 | Luftwaffe | German Air Force

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